IFRAO Report Number 15


The name of the entity shall be the International Federation of Rock Art
Organisations (IFRAO).

IFRAO shall:
Section 1. Provide guide-lines for global standards of rock art
study, conservation, recording and inventorying (documenting and
Section 2. Serve as a clearing house for the dissemination of rock
art data.
Section 3. Encourage intellectual and monetary support of rock art
projects endorsed by IFRAO.
Section 4. Promote high scholarly standards of rock art research
and publication.
Section 5. Undertake educational programs with the public to help
ensure maximal appreciation and protection of rock art resources;

Section 1. Members of IFRAO are organisations, not individuals.
Application for membership will be by written request of the
organisation's head to the IFRAO Convener.
Section 2. Organisations applying for membership should have
professional standing and be corporate entities or have official
recognition of their country's cultural authority.
Section 3. An organisation will be admitted into IFRAO by a
majority vote of existing affiliated organisations conducted by the
Convener. The vote may be cast at an authorised IFRAO meeting or by

Section 1. Exchange of information and copyright options of IFRAO
periodicals shall be encouraged within an integrated network, subject to
approvals by authors concerned.
Section 2. Information about rock art-related subjects, such as
deontology and rock art conservation, will be regularly issued.
Section 3. Reports and bulletins announcing recent discoveries,
current news and other developments of concern or interest to the
discipline shall be released on a regular basis by IFRAO.

Section 1. IFRAO shall be administered by a Convener or caretaker
organiser elected by a majority of votes of the organisational
representatives. Term of office is indefinite.
Section 2. The Convener may recommend his/her successor, subject to
a confirmation vote of two-thirds of the member organisations.
Section 3. The business of IFRAO will be conducted at meet-ings
presided over by the President. The President shall be the host
organisation's representative at an authorised international meeting.
Section 4. If the Convener cannot attend an authorised IFRAO
meeting he/she may delegate the Chairperson to act on his/her behalf.
Section 5. If the President cannot conduct a meeting he/she may
delegate responsibilities to an official IFRAO Representative in
attendance, subject to the approval of the delegates present.

Section 1. An authorised meeting of IFRAO representatives shall be
convened no later than four years from the previous meeting.
Section 2. A majority of votes of organisational Representatives of
IFRAO is required to sanction an upcoming meeting.
Section 3. A year's notice must be given to convene an authorised
Section 4. Each organisation of IFRAO is allowed representation by
one voting delegate.
Section 5. A delegate may represent more than one IFRAO
organisation and may cast votes for each organisation the delegate
Section 6. Each organisation may select a delegate to participate
at an authorised IFRAO meeting by whatever internal process it chooses.
The name of the delegate is then sent to the Chairperson with a copy to
the Convener. If the organisation does not notify the Chairperson prior
to the meeting of the identity of its authorised delegate, the head of
that affiliated organisation may serve as its Representative. If the
head is not present, the chief executive officer of the organisation may
serve as its Representative. If neither are present, an officer of the
organisation or a trustee of the organisation's board of directors may
serve as the organisation's Representative.
Section 7. Agenda items to be considered at an authorised IFRAO
meeting are to be submitted to the President with a copy to the
Section 8. The invitation of observers at an authorised IFRAO
Business Meeting must be by prior mutual consent of official
Section 9. The preparation and distribution of the minutes of an
authorised IFRAO meeting is the responsibility of the President. Minutes
will be published no later than six months from termination of the
Section 10. The quorum of a meeting shall be more than fifty per cent of

Any questions of procedure not covered within this constitution shall be
controlled by the current edition of Robert's Rules of Order.

The central office of IFRAO shall be the current address of the

IFRAO shall be unincorporated. It is not a financial entity and shall
not deal with corporate funds nor make a profit.

This constitution may be amended, repealed or expanded by a quorum of
representatives from constituent affili-ated organisations of IFRAO at
an authorised meeting. Written proposals for such changes must be
submit-ted by mail to all constituent organisations and must bear a
postmark at least forty-five days prior to the first announced day of
the meeting. Editorial revisions and clerical alterations of submitted
proposed changes can be considered and approved at the meeting.


The IFRAO Draft Constitution, drawn up by Professor Ben Swartz
in accordance with the decisions of the Cathedral Peak IFRAO Meeting in
1991 and gazetted in November 1992 (RAR 9: 160-1), was debated, amended
and approved at the IFRAO Meeting of 1995, held at Turin on 1 September
1995. The above version has been adopted by IFRAO.
The Turin IFRAO Business Meeting, chaired by Professor Dario
Seglie, appears to have been the first IFRAO meeting that actually
succeeded in dispatching all items on its agenda successfully.
Congratulations to Dario Seglie and his team! Other important
developments at the Turin IFRAO Business Meeting were the admissions of
four new members to IFRAO: the Mid-America Geogra-phic Foundation,
U.S.A.; the Moscow Centre of Rock Art and Bioindication Research,
Russia; the Armenian Centre of Prehistoric Art Study, Armenia; and
StoneWatch, the Society for Scientific Study of International
Prehistoric Rock Paintings and Rock Engravings, Germany.
The Turin meeting also resolved the sites of the follow-ing
future IFRAO meetings:

1998: Guarda, Portugal (hosted by APAAR)
2000: Third AURA Congress, Australia (hosted by AURA)
2001: Skopje, Macedonia (hosted by Makedonija Centar)

The complete Minutes of the Turin IFRAO Business Meeting will be
published in the next IFRAO Report. That issue will also include the
introductions of the four new members of IFRAO, and possibly those of
another two organisations whose admission is currently being reviewed by
IFRAO. Their admission would bring the number of members to thirty.
We have received requests to provide an updated list of the
official contact addresses of the current IFRAO members, which is
provided below:

Professor B. K. Swartz, Jr
American Committee to Advance the Study of Petroglyphs and Pictographs
Dept of Anthropology
Ball State University
MUNCIE, IN 47306

William D. Hyder
American Rock Art Research Association (ARARA)
166 Pryce Street

Ara Demirkhanian
Armenian Centre of Prehistoric Art Study
National Academy of Sciences of Armenia
Institute of Arts
Marshal Bagramian Prosp. 24 G
375019 Armenia

Dr Mila Simoes de Abreu
Associacao Portuguesa de Arte e Arqueologia Rupestre (APAAR)
Av. D. Jose I, n. 53
2780 Oeiras

Alfred Muzzolini
Association des Amis de l'Art Rupestre Saharien (AARS)
7, rue J. de Resseguier
31000 Toulouse

Dr Jean Clottes
Association pour le Rayonnement de L'Art Parietal Europeen (ARAPE)
11, rue du Fourcat
09000 FOIX

Robert G. Bednarik
Australian Rock Art Research Association (AURA)
P.O. Box 216

Professor Dusko Aleksovski
Centar za Istrazuvanje na Karpestata umet nost i Praistorijata na
91320 Kratovo
Republic of Macedonia

Mario Consens
Centro de Investigaci¢n de Arte Rupestre del Uruguay (CIARU)
C.C. 18.007

Professor Dario Seglie
Centro Studi e Museo d'Arte Preistorica (CeSMAP)
Viale Giolitti, 1

Lic. Maria Mercedes Podesta
Comite de Investigaci¢n del Arte Rupestre de la Sociedad Argentina de
Av. Santa Fe 983, 4 piso A

Dr Fidelis T. Masao
East African Rock Art Research Association (EARARA)
Archaeology Unit
University of Dar Es Salam
P.O. Box 35050

Dr Lothar Wanke
Gesellschaft fur Vergleichende Felsbildforschung (GE.FE. BI.)
Geidorfgurtel 40
A-8010 GRAZ

Dr Michel Lorblanchet
Groupe de reflexion sur les methodes d'etude de l'art parietal
Charge de recherches au CNRS
Roc des Monges

Dr Shyam K. Pandey
Indian Rock Art Research Association (IRA)
C/79, Gaur Nagar University
SAGAR (M.P.) 470 003

Professor Herbert Nowak
Institutum Canarium (IC)
Postfach 48

Nobuhiro Yoshida
Japan Petrograph Society (JPS)
P.O. Box 11
Kokuranishi Post Office
Kitakyusyu-city, Ñ803

Professor Jack Steinbring
Mid-America Geographic Foundation, Inc.
Department of Anthropology
Ripon College
P.O. Box 248
RIPON, Wisconsin 54971

Arsen Faradjev
Moscow Centre of Rock Art and Bioindication Research
Ramenki, 11/1, 33
MOSCOW 117607

M. P. Lanteigne
Rock Art Association of Canada, Inc. (RAAC)
306-450 Talbot Avenue
WINNIPEG, Manitoba R2L 0R3

Professor Jack Steinbring
Rock Art Association of Manitoba (RAAM)
Dept of Anthropology
University of Winnipeg
515 Portage Avenue
WINNIPEG, Manitoba R3B 2E9

Professor Chen Zhao Fu
Rock Art Research Association of China (RARAC)
Central Institute for Nationalities
100081 BEIJING
P. R. China

Dr Giriraj Kumar
Rock Art Society of India (RASI)
Faculty of Arts
Dayalbagh Educational Institute
DAYALBAGH, Agra 282 005

Roy Querejazu Lewis
Sociedad de Investigacion del Arte Rupestre de Bolivia (SIARB)
Casilla 4243

Dr Angelo Fossati
Societa Cooperativa Archeologica Le Orme dell'Uomo
Piazzale Donatori di Sangue, 1
25040 CERVENO (Brescia)

Dr Jean Clottes
Societe Prehistorique Ariege-Pyrenees
11, rue du Fourcat
09000 FOIX

Shirley-Ann Pager
Southern African Rock Art Research Association (SARARA)
P.O. Box 81292
South Africa

Professor Josef Otto
Gartenstrasse 2a

Rock Art Research - Moving into the Twenty-first Century
11 to 18 August 1996, Swakopmund, Namibia
International conference of the Southern African Rock Art Research
Association (SARARA)
with the participation of the East African Rock Art Research Association

The objective of this conference will be to focus on new and innovative
approaches to rock art studies and to assess the latest technologies
that will carry our discipline decisively into the twenty-first century.

1. Recording methods: new and safer copying methods, advances in
photographic techniques, digital recording.
2. Dating: latest methods, accuracy.
3. Meaning and motivation.
4. Environmental issues and site management: conservation and
preservation, protection of the art, visitor control, the role of
government in protection programs.
5. Education.
6. Aesthetic considerations.
7. Displays: will include posters, photographs, rock art copies,
plans and models of conservation programs, publications display.
8. The conference will include the 1996 IFRAO Business Meeting.

Presentation of papers
Each presenter will be allowed thirty minutes. Twenty minutes
will be allowed at the end of each session for questions and discussion.
SARARA will have first publication rights on all papers unless special
arrangements are made.

Registration and accommodation
The registration fees for members of SARARA and other
IFRAO-affiliated rock art organisations are US$130, for non-members
US$150. Membership with SARARA can be arranged on registration.
A variety of accommodation is offered at approximately US$30,
US$50 and US$85 per day sharing. Persons requiring special arrangements
for dietary or any other reasons can be catered for.

Tours and excursions
Pre-conference tour to Brandberg. Visiting Amis Gorge and
Hungorab Gorge with tour leader Dr Dan Craven, duration four days, 6-9
August 1996. There will be a small charge of US$30 per person for
incidental expenses for the trip. Transport by hire car, which can be a
micro-bus for cost sharing.
Pre-conference safari to rock art sites in Namibia. Six days,
5-10 August 1996. Package cost of US$600 includes fully equipped safari
vehicles, fuel, camping equipment, stretchers and blankets, catering
requirements and all meals, camp personnel and guides. Excluded are
alcoholic beverages and minerals, personal insurance, visa, laundry,
items of personal nature, gratuities. The safari includes Erongo
Mountains, Twyfelfontein, Brandberg sites.
Post-conference safari to rock art sites in Namibia. Eleven
days, 19-29 August 1996. Package cost of US$1200 covers details as
above. The safari includes Erongo Mountains, Brandberg, Twyfelfontein,
Etosha National Park, Waterberg Plateau Park.
Post-conference field trip to Tanzania. Planned to be led by
Tanzanian rock art specialists Mr Fosbrook and Mr Mutari. The five-day
package is estimated to cost US$1000, but actual cost will be known
after January 1996. Travel from Windhoek will be with South African
Airways via Johannesburg. Travel arrangements should be made through
SARARA who are handling all travel bookings for the conference and
subsequent field trips. The trip will include Tarangire National Park,
Kondoa rock painting sites, sites in Kolo and Thawi, and Olduvai Gorge.
For further enquiries write to Dr Fidelis Masao, Chairman of EARARA,
University of Dar-es-Salam, P.O. Box 35091, Dar-es-Salam, Tanzania.

This town is situated on the Atlantic coast and is surroun-ded
by the Namib Desert. The cultural heritage is from German colonial times
and the German language is spoken by nearly everyone, as well as English
and Afrikaans. Swakopmund has developed into a holiday resort and
Namibians flock to its cool, refreshing air when the heat of the summer
in the interior becomes unbearable. Throughout the year, the climate is
temperate, early mornings often find the town shrouded in mist. Away
from the coast, August in Namibia has generally warm to hot days with
extremely cold nights. The 24-hour temperature range can be from -10°C
or lower to 28°C or more in the interior. Keep this in mind when you
pack for your visit!

Registrations, accommodation and enquiries:
SARARA, P.O. Box 81292, Parkhurst 2120, South Africa