IFRAO Report Number 10

Cairns, Australia

The Third Business Meeting of the International Federation of Rock Art
Organisations (IFRAO) was held on the evenings of 1, 2 and 3 September
1992, in Lecture Theatre 3 of the Hilton Conference Centre in Cairns,
north Queensland. On 1 September, an open consultation had been
announced, which could be attended by any delegate of the Second AURA
Congress, providing a forum for raising and discussing matters
concerning the discipline. However, the attendance of this meeting was
adversely affected by the considerable popularity of the public lectures
(J. Clottes and P. Bahn) coinciding with it. The meeting was adjourned
with only one recommendation: such events should in future be timed so
as not to coincide with predictably popular academic sessions. The
Business Meetings on the following two days were closed sessions,
attended only by Offi-cial IFRAO Representatives.

Ken Hedges (ARARA); Dr Jean Clottes (ARAPE and Ariège-Pyrénées);
Robert G. Bednarik (AURA, Chair); Dr Mila Simoes de Abreu (proxy,
CeSMAP); Prof. Osaga Odak (EARARA, and proxy, SARARA); Dr Michel
Lorblanchet (Groupe de réflexion); Nobuhiro Yoshida (JPS); Maurice
Lanteigne (RAAC); Prof. Jack Steinbring (RAAM); Prof. Chen Zhao Fu
(RARAC); Dr Giriraj Kumar (RASI); María Mercedes Podestá (CIAR-SAA,
and proxy, SIARB); Ludwig Jaffe (Le Orme dell'Uomo) and Prof. B. N.
Saraswati (observer, Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts).
Consequently, sixteen of the twenty-one member organisa-tions were

Prof. Ben K. Swartz (ACASPP); Mario Consens (CIARU); Prof.
Herbert Nowak (IC).

Minutes of the Cathedral Peak meeting in 1991 as reported in RAR
(9: 158-61) and other affiliated journals were taken as read, and were
accepted with three very minor modifications.

Additional matters arising from the previous Minutes are
reported regularly in affiliated journals.

Several reports were given by Official IFRAO Representa-tives,
and it was decided that such presentations should be more formalised in
the future, and made generally accessible. It was agreed that member
organisations should each prepare short reports, of up to 500 words, on
their recent and current activities. M. S. de Abreu proposed to publish
a book of about 200 pages, summarising the work of IFRAO members: their
activities and organisational work, education programs and specialist
courses, research conducted, publications produced etc. [It is noted
that brief activity statements by six members are contained in the
minutes of the 1991 meeting, Item 6 (RAR 9: 158-9).]

5.1 G. Kumar reiterated the role of IFRAO as an information
exchange network, and proposed that all members should automatically
send their publications to all other members. The postage costs were
queried, but it was argued that many members already adhere to this
system, which has the very considerable benefit that each member
receives all the publications of the others in return.
5.2 Discussion established that the earlier proposed waiving
of copyright among members, for texts of up to 1000 words, is confirmed.
Consequently all members may reprint short published texts by other
members without having to obtain permission, provided they acknowledge
the source of the mate-rial. However, for longer articles and research
papers, the permis-sion of the authors would be required. Such
arrangements are to be encouraged, especially for the purpose of
producing translated versions of existing work. In such cases the
journal that originally published the material still needs to be
contacted concerning copyright releases.

J. Steinbring moved that matters concerning the approval of new
members be given priority, and that Argentina be assured to be
considered in this session. K. Hedges, N. Yoshida and M. Lanteigne
requested clarification of the status of the CIAR-SAA, which was
explained by M. Podest , and after establishing that nomination referred
only to the rock art organisation within SAA (Sociedad Argentina de
Antropología) and some debate of IFRAO membership conditions, it was
moved that CIAR-SAA be accepted as a member of IFRAO.
Moved: ARARA; Seconded: RAAM; Carried.

7.1 G. Kumar raised the possibility of introducing a
two-year probationary period for new members of IFRAO. J. Steinbring
proposed that selection should be in sufficient depth so that we would
not have to have a probationary period, and we should have sufficient
confidence in candidates before we elect them as members. While the
motion had the support of some members, others argued against it. In
response to the view of G. Kumar and O. Odak, that observance of ethics
needs to be monitored, M. S. de Abreu pointed out that adherence for a
limited period does not necessarily guarantee continued adherence, and
that we must distinguish between organisations and their individual
members. G. Kumar cited the example of a European member of IFRAO,
whose executive committee members are said to continue conducting
unethical recording methods in India. A mechanism of addressing
such matters needs to be developed within IFRAO, and the issue of
research permits was considered.
L. Jaffe and J. Clottes suggested that the organisation
concerned be asked to respond to the claims by the Indian scholars, and
J. Clottes emphasised that the actions of individual members should not
be held against organisations they are members of. It was moved that a
letter be sent to the senior officer of the organisation in ques-tion,
expressing concern and asking for clarification.
Moved: ARAPE; Seconded: ARARA; Carried.
7.2 The proposal of the Indira Gandhi National Centre for
the Arts in New Delhi to host an IFRAO Meeting in late 1993 was debated,
bearing in mind that no proposal had been received from an IFRAO member
for that year. The proposal had strong support from some delegates, and
K. Hedges queried whether there were any restrictions excluding
nomination of an event by a non-member. R. Bednarik suggested that we
should be guided by what was considered in Darwin in 1988, and J.
Steinbring pointed out that the principal consideration was to support
whatever would enhance the exchange of information. G. Kumar suggested
that a RASI Meeting be held as part of the New Delhi proceedings. After
consultation with B. N. Saraswati and detailed discussion, it was moved
that an IFRAO Meeting be held in New Delhi at the end of November 1993.
Moved: ARARA; Seconded: RAAM; Carried.
7.3 K. Hedges asked what the status of the IFRAO
constitution was. A draft constitution has now been published (RAR 9:
160-1), subsequent to the deliberations at the Cathedral Peak meeting,
and proposals concerning it have been invited from IFRAO
7.4 O. Odak raised the subject of organisations composed of
researchers conducting work in continents other than those they reside
in. J. Clottes argued that IFRAO members are not neces-sarily national
organisations, and that their individual members may work in a variety
of regions. This led to a discussion of sizes of member organisations,
their spheres of influence, and political considerations. It was
observed, however, that ultimately it is the IFRAO executive which
accepts or rejects candidates for membership.
7.5 L. Jaffe presented arguments in favour of accepting the
bid by CeSMAP to site the 1995 IFRAO Meeting in Pinerolo-Torino, Italy.
The proposal had good support, but O. Odak expressed concern that the
event will coincide with a major archaeological meeting in the same
region, and feared that this could have adverse effects. Debate showed,
however, that dele-gates are confident of the discipline's strength and
perceive more potential benefits than disadvantages from such

The experience of the previous IFRAO Meeting had shown that
future meetings should be conducted in the form of short sessions of
several hours per day, rather than in one long session. This had been
taken into account in planning the Cairns event. However, only one third
of the items on the Agenda were actu-ally discussed, and it became clear
that future business meetings need to be timed so that they will not
compete with any other sessions or lectures, i.e. they need to take
place on the day(s) immediately before or after the proceedings of the
host event.

The meetings were adjourned at 8.30 p.m. on 3 September.
Robert G. Bednarik
Secretary, AURA
RAR 10-281


At its 1992 Annual General Meeting, the Association des Amis de l'Art
Rupestre Saharien (AARS) has unanimously decided to apply for IFRAO
membership. The submission has been placed before the IFRAO
Representatives, and the fourteen ballot papers so far received all
support the admission, therefore a majority vote is assured, and AARS
becomes the twenty-second member of IFRAO.
The new member specialises in the study of Saharan rock art, its
conservation, and exchange of information about documenta-tion and
events related to Saharan rock art. The Association's constitution
emphasises that `membership implies commitment to personal respect of,
and, as far as it is possible, prompting other people to respect, the
archaeological heritage of Saharan coun-tries'. The executive board is
democratically elected, with terms of office limited to one or two
years. There are no restrictive or discriminatory membership rules.
AARS was founded in 1991, with an initial membership of 184, and
publishes a newsletter in French. The contact address is:
Association des Amis de l'Art Rupestre Saharien
Alfred Muzzolini (President)
7, rue J. de Rességuier
31000 Toulouse France

The establishment of the Associaçao Portuguesa de Arte e
Arqueologia Rupestre (APAAR) had been foreshadowed by its founders, Dr
Mila Simoes de Abreu and Ludwig Jaffe, at the Cairns congress. It has
recently become a reality, with an initial membership of over fifty, and
the new organisation immediately sought IFRAO affiliation. The
constitution of the Association declares it to be a non-profit
organisation dedicated to interests concerning rock art, including
teaching, research and protection. It has a democratically elected
executive and membership is open to all. Working groups have already
been formed in several universities in Portugal. The first issue of a
newsletter has been produced, and a lecture series by international
speakers has been initiated. One of the priorities of APAAR is to
compile a detailed rock art inventory of Portugal, a small country with
a substantial rock art heritage that extends back to the Palaeolithic
period. A specific aim, reflecting an admirably strong commitment by the
executive committee, is to eradicate physical enhancement recording
methods in Portugal.
The preliminary result of a postal ballot is: thirteen votes
received, twelve for acceptance, one abstention. Consequently APAAR
becomes the twenty-third member of IFRAO. The contact address is:
Associaçao Portuguesa de Arte e Arqueologia Rupestre
Dr Mila Simoes de Abreu (Chairperson)
Av. D. José I, n. 53
2780 Oeiras Portugal

Another very recent application for IFRAO membership is from the
Centar za Istrazuvanje na Karpestata umet nost i Prais-torijata na
Makedonija (Rock Art Research Centre of Macedo-nia). The society's
members are elected democratically, it has non-profit status as a
scientific organisation, and there are no restrictive membership rules.
The President is Professor Dusko Aleksovski, and his application was
accompanied by a supporting letter from the Minister of Science of the
Republic of Macedonia, Dr A. Selmani. It had been submitted and vetted
by Professor Dario Seglie, the IFRAO Representative of Italy, who
reminded fellow members that `our acceptance will be important,
espe-cially in this time when the young Macedonian Republic (formerly
part of Yugoslavia) is asking for, and going to receive, international
The preliminary result of the postal ballot suggests that the
IFRAO members have heeded Dario Seglie's words: thirteen votes received
so far, all of which approve the nomination. Conse-quently the
Macedonian Centar becomes the twenty-fourth member of IFRAO. We take
this opportunity to wish the young Republic of Macedonia well for the
difficult times it faces. The contact address of the new member is:
Centar za Istrazuvanje na Karpestata umet nost i Praistorijata
na Makedonija
Professor Dusko Aleksovski (President)
91320 Kratovo
Republic of Macedonia


The number of IFRAO members has grown rapidly, and in order to
facilitate correspondence and the exchange of publications as per IFRAO
policy, an updated and complete list of the current IFRAO
Representatives is provided below. Three new members are listed above,
bringing the total of rock art organisations affi-liated with IFRAO to
twenty-four. They are essentially the twenty-four largest and most
active rock art societies in the world, and they include in their
combined memberships virtually all scholars active in this discipline.

Professor B. K. Swartz, Jr
American Committee to Advance the Study of Petroglyphs and Pictographs
Dept of Anthropology
Ball State University
MUNCIE, IN 47306

Alice J. Bock
American Rock Art Research Association (ARARA)
P. O. Box 65
SAN MIGUEL, CA 93451-0065

Dr Jean Clottes
Association pour le Rayonnement de L'Art Pariétal Européen (ARAPE)
11, rue du Fourcat
09000 FOIX

Robert G. Bednarik
Australian Rock Art Research Association (AURA)
P. O. Box 216

Mario Consens
Centro de Investigaci¢n de Arte Rupestre del Uruguay (CIARU)
C.C. 18.007

Professor Dario Seglie
Centro Studi e Museo d'Arte Preistorica (CeSMAP)
Viale Giolitti, 1

Lic. Mar¡a Mercedes Podestá
Comite de Investigación del Arte Rupestre de la Sociedad Argentina de
Av. Santa Fe 983, 4 piso A

Dr Fidelis T. Masao
East African Rock Art Research Association (EARARA)
Archaeology Unit
University of Dar Es Salam
P.O. Box 35050

Dr Lothar Wanke
Gesellschaft fur Vergleichende Felsbildforschung (GE.FE.BI.)
Geidorfgürtel 40
A-8010 GRAZ

Dr Michel Lorblanchet
Groupe de réflexion sur les méthodes d'étude de l'art pariétal
Chargé de recherches au CNRS
46160 CAJARC

Dr Shyam K. Pandey
Indian Rock Art Research Association (IRA)
C/79, Gaur Nagar University
SAGAR (M.P.) 470 003

Professor Herbert Nowak
Institutum Canarium (IC)
Postfach 48

Nobuhiro Yoshida
Japan Petrograph Society (JPS)
P. O. Box 11
Kokuranishi Post Office
Kitakyusyu-city, Ñ803

M. P. Lanteigne
Rock Art Association of Canada, Inc. (RAAC)
306-450 Talbot Avenue
WINNIPEG, Manitoba R2L 0R3

Professor Jack Steinbring
Rock Art Association of Manitoba (RAAM)
Department of Anthropology
University of Winnipeg
515 Portage Avenue
WINNIPEG, Manitoba R3B 2E9

Professor Chen Zhao Fu
Rock Art Research Association of China (RARAC)
Central Institute for Nationalities
100081 BEIJING
P. R. China

Dr Giriraj Kumar
Rock Art Society of India (RASI)
Faculty of Arts
Dayalbagh Educational Institute
DAYALBAGH, Agra 282 005

Roy Querejazu Lewis
Sociedad de Investigaci¢n del Arte Rupestre de Bolivia (SIARB)
Casilla 4243

Ludwig Jaffe
Società Cooperativa Archeologica Le Orme dell'Uomo
Piazzale Donatori di Sangue, 1
25040 CERVENO (Brescia)

Dr Jean Clottes
Société Préhistorique Ariège-Pyrénées
11, rue du Fourcat
09000 FOIX

Shirley-Ann Pager
Southern African Rock Art Research Association (SARARA)
P. O. Box 81292
South Africa
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